Anatomy of an OSTree repository
Core object types and data model
OSTree is deeply inspired by git; the core layer is a userspace content-addressed versioning filesystem. It is worth taking some time to familiarize yourself with Git Internals, as this section will assume some knowledge of how git works.
Its object types are similar to git; it has commit objects and content objects. Git has "tree" objects, whereas OSTree splits them into "dirtree" and "dirmeta" objects. But unlike git, OSTree's checksums are SHA256. And most crucially, its content objects include uid, gid, and extended attributes (but still no timestamps).
A commit object contains metadata such as a timestamp, a log message, and most importantly, a reference to a dirtree/dirmeta pair of checksums which describe the root directory of the filesystem. Also like git, each commit in OSTree can have a parent. It is designed to store a history of your binary builds, just like git stores a history of source control. However, OSTree also makes it easy to delete data, under the assumption that you can regenerate it from source code.
A dirtree contains a sorted array of (filename, checksum)
pairs for content objects, and a second sorted array of
(filename, dirtree checksum, dirmeta checksum), which are
subdirectories. These type of objects are stored as files
.dirtree in the objects directory.
In git, tree objects contain the metadata such as permissions
for their children. But OSTree splits this into a separate
object to avoid duplicating extended attribute listings.
These type of objects are stored as files ending with
in the objects directory.
Unlike the first three object types which are metadata, designed to be
mmap()ed, the content object has a separate internal header and
payload sections. The header contains uid, gid, mode, and symbolic
link target (for symlinks), as well as extended attributes. After the
header, for regular files, the content follows. These parts toghether
form the SHA256 hash for content objects. The content type objects in
this format exist only in
archive OSTree repositories. Today the
content part is gzip'ed and the objects are stored as files ending
.filez in the objects directory. Because the SHA256 hash is
formed over the uncompressed content, these files do not match the
hash they are named as.
The OSTree data format intentionally does not contain timestamps. The reasoning is that data files may be downloaded at different times, and by different build systems, and so will have different timestamps but identical physical content. These files may be large, so most users would like them to be shared, both in the repository and between the repository and deployments.
This could cause problems with programs that check if files are out-of-date by comparing timestamps. For Git, the logical choice is to not mess with timestamps, because unnecessary rebuilding is better than a broken tree. However, OSTree has to hardlink files to check them out, and commits are assumed to be internally consistent with no build steps needed. For this reason, OSTree acts as though all timestamps are set to time_t 0, so that comparisons will be considered up-to-date. Note that for a few releases, OSTree used 1 to fix warnings such as GNU Tar emitting "implausibly old time stamp" with 0; however, until we have a mechanism to transition cleanly to 1, for compatibilty OSTree is reverted to use zero again.
Repository types and locations
Also unlike git, an OSTree repository can be in one of four separate
archive. A bare repository is
one where content files are just stored as regular files; it's
designed to be the source of a "hardlink farm", where each operating
system checkout is merely links into it. If you want to store files
owned by e.g. root in this mode, you must run OSTree as root.
bare-user mode is a later addition that is like
bare in that
files are unpacked, but it can (and should generally) be created as
non-root. In this mode, extended metadata such as owner uid, gid, and
extended attributes are stored in extended attributes under the name
user.ostreemeta but not actually applied.
bare-user mode is useful for build systems that run as non-root
but want to generate root-owned content, as well as non-root container
bare-user-only mode is a variant to the
bare-user mode. Unlike
bare-user, neither ownership nor extended attributes are stored. These repos
are meant to to be checked out in user mode (with the
-U flag), where this
information is not applied anyway. Hence this mode may loose metadata.
The main advantage of
bare-user-only is that repos can be stored on
filesystems which do not support extended attributes, such as tmpfs.
In contrast, the
archive mode is designed for serving via plain
HTTP. Like tar files, it can be read/written by non-root users.
On an OSTree-deployed system, the "system repository" is
/ostree/repo. It can
be read by any uid, but only written by root. The
ostree command will by
default operate on the system repository; you may provide the
to override this, or set the
$OSTREE_REPO environment variable.
Like git, OSTree uses the terminology "references" (abbreviated
"refs") which are text files that name (refer to) particular
commits. See the
for information on how git uses them. Unlike git though, it doesn't
usually make sense to have a "master" branch. There is a convention
for references in OSTree that looks like this:
exampleos/buildmaster/x86_64-devel-debug. These two refs point to
two different generated filesystem trees. In this example, the
"runtime" tree contains just enough to run a basic system, and
"devel-debug" contains all of the developer tools and debuginfo.
ostree supports a simple syntax using the caret
^ to refer to
the parent of a given commit. For example,
exampleos/buildmaster/x86_64-runtime^ refers to the previous build,
exampleos/buildmaster/x86_64-runtime^^ refers to the one before
The summary file
A later addition to OSTree is the concept of a "summary" file, created
ostree summary -u command. This was introduced for a few
reasons. A primary use case is to be compatible with
Metalink, which requires a
single file with a known checksum as a target.
The summary file primarily contains two mappings:
- A mapping of the refs and their checksums, equivalent to fetching the ref file individually
- A list of all static deltas, along with their metadata checksums
This currently means that it grows linearly with both items. On the other hand, using the summary file, a client can enumerate branches.
Further, fetching the summary file over e.g. pinned TLS creates a strong end-to-end verification of the commit or static delta.
The summary file can also be GPG signed (detached). This is currently the only way to provide GPG signatures (transitively) on deltas.
If a repository administrator creates a summary file, they must
ostree summary -u to update it whenever a ref is
updated or a static delta is generated.
Licensing for this document:
SPDX-License-Identifier: (CC-BY-SA-3.0 OR GFDL-1.3-or-later)